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We are grateful to the Tiffany & Co. Foundation for funding of this research project.

A number of pearl specimens photographed and visible on this website are from the Swiss Gemmological Institute SSEF gemstone collection. We thank them for their cooperation in sharing this material.


Photographic material has come from a number of sources and individuals. Thanks to Christoph BrackHenry Hänni, Josh Humbert, Justin Hunter, Masahiro Ito, Douglas McLaurinVincent Pardieu, Luc Phan, and others. Unless otherwise mentioned all photos on are copyright of Laurent Cartier, Saleem Ali and SustainablePearls.